The Impact of Chocolate on Memory

The Impact of Chocolate on Memory

For today’s discussion, Please complete part A & B: A) Come up with a study that would evaluate the effect of chocolate on memory. Your hypothesis is that eating chocolate while studying improves memory. Be creative, original, and have fun with this one! and B) Evaluate the merits and potential challenges of at least one peer’s study design. Due Date: Your post is due by 11:59pm on Sunday. Grading: Complete A and B. To get maximum points for your discussion forum posting, please address all parts of the question, using complete sentences, and proper spelling and grammar. Make your original post or your response at least 200 words and add a word count at the end of your post. If a rubric is available, please compose your answer to meet all of the criteria specified in the rubric. CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH METHODS • This presentation has no audio. • Use this power point presentation as an outline that you can fill in as you read through chapter 4. • The video link on slide 3 is the same as the stand alone link: “Experimental Design” EXAMINING ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR • Important questions research can help to answer: • What problems cause distress or impair function? • Why do people behave in unusual ways? • How can we help them develop more adaptive behaviors? R ES EA RCH I N P SYCHO LOGY BASIC COMPONENTS OF A RESEARCH STUDY • Hypothesis • “Educated Guess” • Scientific hypotheses must be testable • Not all hypotheses are • Research design • A method to test hypotheses • Independent variable • Dependent variable BASIC COMPONENTS OF A RESEARCH STUDY • Striking a balance in the relationship between: • Internal validity • External validity • Hypothesis testing • Minimizing confounds • Control groups • Randomization • Analog models • Generalizability STATISTICAL VERSUS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE • Statistical methods • Branch of mathematics • Reduces biases • Statistical vs. clinical significance • Chance? • Meaningful? • Does one mean the other? • Effect size and social validity THE “AVERAGE” CLIENT • Patient uniformity myth • Averages • Variability within groups STUDYING INDIVIDUAL CASES • Case studies • Extensive observation • Detailed description • Foundation for early developments • Freud • Unique problems • Contributions/Challenges to theories • Limitations—reactivity RESEARCH BY CORRELATION • The nature of correlation • Statistical relationship • No manipulated independent variable • Correlation and causation • Positive correlation • Negative correlation • Correlation vs. causation RESEARCH BY CORRELATION • Nature and strength of association • Correlation coefficient • –1.0 to 0 to +1.0 RESEARCH BY CORRELATION EPIDEMIOLOGICAL RESEARCH • Epidemiological studies • Population based • Incidence • Prevalence RESEARCH BY EXPERIMENT • Nature of experimental research • Manipulate independent variable • Observe effects on dependent variable • Attempt to determine causality • Premium on internal validity RESEARCH BY EXPERIMENT • Group experimental designs • Manipulating a variable • Clinical trials RESEARCH BY EXPERIMENT • Control groups • Matched control groups • Age, gender, socioeconomics, etc. • Placebo control groups • Single-blind control • Double-blind control • Minimizes allegiance effects RESEARCH BY EXPERIMENT • Comparative treatment designs • Compares different forms of treatment in similar persons • Treatment process • Treatment Outcomes SINGLE-CASE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS • Nature of single subject design • Rigorous study of single cases • Variance in conditions and time • Repeated measurement • Evaluation of: • Variability • Level • Trend SINGLE-CASE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS SINGLE-CASE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS • Withdrawal designs • Baseline • Ethical concerns? • Multiple baseline designs • Multiple baseline • Independent variable and multiple Independent variables • Improved internal validity GENETICS AND RESEARCH ACROSS TIME AND CULTURES • Behavioral genetics • Interactions of genes, experience, and behavior • Phenotypes • Genotypes • Human genome project • Endophenotypes GENETICS AND RESEARCH ACROSS TIME AND CULTURES • Strategies used in genetic research • Basic genetic epidemiology • Advanced genetic epidemiology • Gene finding • Molecular genetics GENETICS AND RESEARCH ACROSS TIME AND CULTURES • Family studies • Proband • First- or second-degree relatives • Familial aggregation • Issue of shared environment GENETICS AND RESEARCH ACROSS TIME AND CULTURES • Adoption studies • Sibling pairs separated after birth • Parcels out effects of environment • Observed frequency versus chance GENETICS AND RESEARCH ACROSS TIME AND CULTURES • Twin studies • Identical or monozygotic • Fraternal or dizygotic • Confounds: Family environment effects • Parents and others • Twins themselves GENETICS AND RESEARCH ACROSS TIME AND CULTURES • Genetic linkage studies • Localization of genes • Genetic markers • Confluence of disorders and genetic markers • Association studies • Markers in people with and without the disorder • Identifies polygenetic influences STUDYING BEHAVIOR OVER TIME • Prevention research • Universal prevention • Selective prevention • Indicated prevention STUDYING BEHAVIOR OVER TIME • Time-based research strategies • Cross-Sectional designs • Cohorts • Retrospective information • Longitudinal designs • Cross-generational effect • Sequential design STUDYING BEHAVIOR OVER TIME STUDYING BEHAVIOR ACROSS CULTURES • Value of cross-cultural research • Overcoming ethnocentric views • Increases understanding of • Etiologies • Symptom presentations • Treatments STUDYING BEHAVIOR ACROSS CULTURES • Difficulties in cross-cultural research • Definitions • Variance in presentation • Thresholds • Equivalence in outcomes POWER OF A PROGRAM OF RESEARCH • Components of a research program • Conducted in stages • Multiple perspectives • Replication RESEARCH ETHICS • When does science trump one’s right to treatment? • Institutional Review Boards • Informed consent • Competence • Voluntarism • Full information • Comprehension • APA ethics • Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct RESEARCH ETHICS • Involving consumers in research • Participatory action research • Designing • Running • Interpreting research • Relevance of the research • Treatment of the participants PREVENTION RESEARCH AND STRATEGIES • Targets: entire populations • Health promotion/positive development • Skill building to avoid problems • Universal prevention • Target specific risk factors PREVENTION RESEARCH AND STRATEGIES • Targets: select populations • Selective prevention • Targets groups at risk • Indicated prevention • Individuals in early stages of problems

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