Small local businesses and Covid Literature Review
Group 22 Outline Topic: Review options for financial instruments such as Storm Water Management Levies to fund more sustainable infrastructure. “The point of the outline is simply to make it clear to you (and to me) what you are intending to do and how you think you will do it. What is the preliminary title of your project (which ideally gives an idea of what you are arguing on the basis of what you have found in your scoping research)? What is the structure of your Report? What will you cover in each section? Obviously, I assume that you already have done some scoping research and that you are able to write up an outline at this point.” Title Page: Supporting tourism and local businesses to increase revenue that will financially support sustainable infrastructure in St. Jacobs Abstract / Executive Summary • Through our various research, we conclude it is a necessity for St. Jacob’s to have financial instruments that fund sustainable infrastructure to enhance its local economy, cultural integrity, social stability and environmental standard. Introduction • • • St. Jacob is a typical medium-sized community that is located in the southwest part of the city of Waterloo. According to the Census Profile 2016, the population of St. Jacobs is 1988. This area is not only used as a traditional crop area, but also a popular tourist destination. The Waterloo area attracts approximately 4,800,000 tourists each year and generates about $357,280,000 in revenue for the local area. A considerable number of travelers will choose to go to St. Jacob. (background) https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dppd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=POPC&Code1=1245&Geo2= PR&Code2=35&SearchText=St.%20Jacobs&SearchType=Begins&Sea rchPR=01&B1=All&GeoLevel=PR&GeoCode=1245&TABID=1&type=0 https://explorewaterloo.ca/2019/05/tourism-matters/ • Literature Review (must be ⅓ or ½ of the Research Report) • • • The Transportation and public commute options available to the Waterloo region and St. Jacobs’ area are insufficient in their support for financial instruments to the community. Such insufficient transportation can cause significant damage to the local economy and culture. o The Waterloo Central Railway does not connect to essential cores of the nearby city but rather the Market and St. Jacobs itself. Grand River Transit provides one route to St. Jacobs which has a poor connection to core audiences such as students and extensive travel times. This is both via. only bus and by the light rail transit within the city. o Lack of easy access to communities and the damage it has caused else where in restricting financial instruments. There is a lack of support for local farmers in regards to the farmers’ market. Any vendor from any country is able to apply with ease and receive a placement as there is no present prioritization for local Canadian farmers. o Such lack of prioritization can decrease local sales and revenue, rather than causing a financial leakage outside of the community. It is also possible for local farmers to be unable to compete with the prices of other vendors and be phased out of the market. o Instances in which local communities lose revenue and have their economy taken over by non-residents. In regards to recent events, there is no accessible online option to access the local regular products that would be sold at the farmers market. Such insufficient options in the event of an emergency such as COVID-19 restrict locals sales and can even cause local businesses to be unable to sustain themselves. As a result financial instruments easily decrease and there become an even more significant lack of funding for sustainable infrastructure. o Other instances of small and local businesses in the event of COVID-19 are seen globally damaging economies due to a lack of easy access, advertisement and support for their businesses. Discussion Potential Recommendations • What positives currently exist, an extremely brief understanding of local shops, heritage sites such as Cellar 52 and Conestoga River Pottery. Highlighting the business of the farmers market and the local community that includes working-class and large student bodies. • • • • • • Public Transportation has the potential to bring in o Waterloo Central Railway (Currently from Farmer’s Market to St. Jacobs) ▪ Train extended from Market to Northfield Dr. where track already exists ▪ All that is needed is a train station to allow easy transfer from the LRT to the Waterloo Central Railway ▪ Specific focus on quicker and easier travel for university students ▪ Update the Steam Train to electric ▪ Acknowledgement of possible costs that may result but also income o Sustainable and better roads Supporting the Farmers Market o Vendors ▪ There is no existing prioritization system towards Canadian vendors over American (https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/098.nsf/eng/00022.html) ▪ It is necessary to increase export commodities appropriately and focus on export trade. (https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/098.nsf/eng/00022.html) ▪ Regional integration is very important.(https://stjacobsmarket.com/market-roadantiques/) o Online resource updates and options? ▪ There is no online shopping system in this area. (https://www.statista.com/statistics/1175029/past-weekonline-grocery-service-usage-canada/) ▪ Stores and products that should be marked with organic food labels on the farmers’ market website. (https://www.yellowpages.ca/search/si/1/Natural+%26+Or ganic+Food+Stores/St.+Jacobs+ON) B.I.A (Business Improvement Area) Partnership o Supporting Local business income o Nature and Local Heritage Advertise local green community Suggested local Sustainable infrastructure o Sustainable water management ( minimize the distance of the water is treated or reused) o \ References https://libproxy.wlu.ca/login?url=https://www-proquestcom.libproxy.wlu.ca/dissertations-theses/demand-side-farmers-marketskitchener-waterloo/docview/304159894/se-2?accountid=15090 • “The demand side of farmers’ markets in Kitchener-Waterloo: An examination of the Waterloo, St. Jacobs and Kitchener farmers’ markets” o An overview and research paper of the social structure and market-style that is the St. Jacobs Farmers market as well as the two other local markets for comparison. https://resolver-scholarsportalinfo.libproxy.wlu.ca/resolve/07430167/v25i0001/156_rtmocdsjoadl.xml • “Revisiting the model of creative destruction: St. Jacobs, Ontario, a decade later” o The dangers of creating a community based solely on advertising local heritage without proper support and rather focusing solely on the consumer. ▪ Complex social relations, the conflict between conservationists and developers, power is won by stakeholders with the loudest voice and hegemony rests with those who profit and their supporters, both of who have directed St. Jacobs down this path. https://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=2xTJvYqzFNkC&oi=fnd&pg=PR 5&ots=3pScdNTTSy&sig=IHSRSUp-DDceAGdJdhpXg74bNs&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false • A book called Green Infrastructure: Linking Landscapes and Communities that describes the relationship between green infrastructure and cultural benefits. Includes a whole mass of knowledge on green infrastructure in general https://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0001463 • Exploring Relationships between National Culture and Infrastructure Sustainability Using QCA o Scholarly paper discussing the benefits of sustainable infrastructure to a communities social and cultural means. It explains how a shift in a cultural/social mindset in a community can change infrastructure owners attitudes and behaviours to increase Sustainable Infrastructure levels https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/resrep16147.pdf • Toward a Comprehensive Approach to Climate Policy, Sustainable Infrastructure and Finance o Discusses the relationship between sustainable infrastructure and the economy. How the economy suffers without it and flourishes with it. (https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/098.nsf/eng/00022.html) • This article reported on related strategic issues related to Canadian agricultural products. We found that Canada, as a major exporter, has an amazing annual export volume of agricultural products. St Jacob farmers’ markets can increase economic income through export trade. (https://www.statista.com/statistics/1175029/past-week-online-groceryservice-usage-canada/) • This website shows the percentage of Canadian consumers who shop online for groceries in 2016-2020. You can give some help to the St Jacob Farmers’ Market. Increasing online shopping will help increase economic income. (https://www.yellowpages.ca/search/si/1/Natural+%26+Organic+Food+Stores/ St.+Jacobs+ON) • According to the survey, St Jacob has a rich variety of organic foods, with nearly 200 organic producers. And these organic products do not have a distinctive mark, and no clear explanation is given on the website. This is not conducive to the purchaser’s consumption. Instructions for the ES296 Research Project Report, Winter 2021 This document provides an outline of how to complete the Research Project under the unique conditions of remote learning – it is not representative of ‘normal’ practices in ES296! Be sure to read Chapter 4 in “Communicating in Geography and the Environmental Sciences” by Hay & Giles (see the syllabus) for a detailed explanation of how to write a Research Report. You should also consult the many research tutorials and handouts provided on Laurier’s Library page (links are posted on the ES296 MLS course page). I expect that you consult those resources as you write your Research Report. This document has three sections: Purpose, Task, and Criteria for Success 1) Purpose The purpose of this Research Project is to: apply the concept of sustainability to a real-life problem improve your research skills practice your professional writing and presentation skills prepare you for a variety of tasks you will encounter in your professional life In more specific terms, this Research Project will challenge you to show your mastery of: • • • • • course concepts and textbook content o can you correctly use concepts and terminology from the textbook? secondary literature research methods o can you find/evaluate/integrate good professional and academic sources? academic conventions o are you able to properly integrate, format, and cite quoted material? writing for a critical educated audience o can you write with proper logic, tone, clarity, style, grammar, spelling, and punctuation? presentation skills o can you design and deliver a professional-level presentation? instructions will be provided in a separate document 2) Task Your task in this Research Project is to: select a problem from the list provided by the municipality conduct some ‘scoping’ research that helps you understand and address the municipality’s specific problem search the literature for examples of ‘best practices’ that have been applied to similar problems transfer insights from your research to the municipality’s problem and review options for addressing it recommend one or several preferred options and explain your reasoning write up a professional Research Report for the municipality in which you detail your findings o be sure to incorporate feedback at every stage of the report writing give a professional presentation to the municipality in which you summarize your findings Step One: select a problem from the list provided by the municipality Step Two: understand the problem better by doing some ‘scoping’ research • • • • • “Research is the process of going up alleys to see if they are blind” (Mosquito Zoologist Marston Bates, quoted in Hay & Giles, p. 62) the purpose of this stage is twofold: o become informed about the problem you chose and the topic in general, and o develop an idea of what to look for in particular as you begin to search for more specific, professional and academic sources in Step Three as intimated by the quote above, your research will frequently end in a dead end. Don’t worry, this will help you better define the area in which you can search more fruitfully! start by researching the issue in the way you usually would in this ‘scoping’ stage, you can consult popular sources and platforms such as Wikipedia, but only for the purpose of building your general understanding of the topic. Your actual Research Report should be built on professional and academic sources (see below) once you are more informed about your concept and the topic in general, you are ready to begin the next, more specific stage of your research Step Three: search the secondary literature for professional and academic sources on which to build your Research Report through the library system, find professional and academic publications that examine the subject matter of the problem you want to examine your goal is to find ‘best practices’, which are solutions to similar problems that other authors have reported in the literature o this is the point of secondary literature research: you want to learn from the methods and conclusions other authors have put forward o in other words: don’t re-invent the wheel, but build on the work of other authors – and be absolutely certain to properly cite their work! Step Four: transfer and apply those insights from the secondary literature to your problem • • evaluate whether the solutions you found in the literature could work for your specific problem identify one or several preferred options and explain why you think these are the preferred options o this is a crucial part of your Research Report: it shows that you can find good material, know how to analyze it, and are able to draw conclusions from it! Step Five: write up your Research Report as per the standards given below 3) Criteria for Success In terms of format, your Research Report should: be 3 pages in length per team member (i.e., 15 pages for a five-person team) o 15 pages are equivalent to just under 4,000 words this count includes ONLY the text-heavy sections 4 -8 listed below (Introduction, Literature Review, Discussion, Conclusion, and Recommendations). All other sections are over and above that word count o in other words, your total document should be longer than 15 pages be written in 12-pt font, double-spaced, with one-inch margins have page numbers have a title that clearly expresses what your Research Report is examining be divided into the sections listed below be submitted to the MLS dropbox by midnight on April 2 o note that the presentations begin on March 30 already! In terms of structure, your Research Report should follow these guidelines: Note: the following guidelines are based on the advice given in Chapter 4 of: Hay, I. & Giles, P. (2015) Communicating in geography and the environmental sciences, (2nd Canadian ed.) Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press Canada. Please refer to that chapter for general guidance and more detailed explanations of each of the components of the Research Report. As Hay & Giles write (citing Eisenberg 1992), a Research Report should address the following overarching questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What did you do? Why did you do it? How did you do it? What did you find out? What do the findings mean? Based on Hay & Giles, I recommend that you divide your Research Report into the following distinct sections. Exactly how you address the five questions across these sections depends on your specific topic and you writing style. For more detailed information on each of these sections, please refer to Chapter 4 in Hay & Giles. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Title Page Abstract/Executive Summary Table of Content Introduction Literature Review Discussion 7. 8. 9. 10. Conclusion Recommendations Reference List Appendices Here are a few explanations that are specific to the Research Report you are undertaking in ES296: 1. The Title Page should contain the title, your names, and the due date. do NOT include your student numbers as the Research Report will be made accessible to the municipality 2. The Abstract/Executive Summary will be your showcase section in which you must clearly and concisely communicate to your readers on the Township Council what the outcome of your research is. 4. In the Introduction you establish the context for the rest of the Research Report: you introduce the subject matter you state why this report and the topic are relevant and important to investigate o In other words, you answer the ‘so what?’ or ‘why bother?’ question you briefly explain how you are going to investigate the issue the Introduction should not be longer than one or at most two pages 5. In the Literature Review section you place your Research Report into the broader context of what has been written about this problem in the literature: you will draw mostly on professional and academic publications o you may use popular resources to learn and provide some general contextual information, but you should be careful to base your Research Report on professional and academic sources you provide enough information to the reader so s/he is able to understand the problem you are investigating and evaluate the merit of your proposed solutions this section is where you show your RESEARCH ability (through the quality of the sources you use) and your ability to ANALYZE the sources (by explaining how they relate to your problem) the Literature Review should make up *roughly* one third to one half of your Research Report 6. In the all-important Discussion section you explain and interpret what you found: you discuss how your findings from the secondary literature relate to your problem you show your UNDERSTANDING of the various perspectives you have found and your ability to EVALUATE and SYNTHESIZE them into a cohesive standpoint of your own you explain how your findings support the recommendations you are making in the Research Report the Discussion should make up *roughly* one third to one half of your Research Report 7. In the Conclusion you summarize how your research has addressed the problem you reflect on the lessons you have learned in the process of doing this project you suggest what you might do differently if you had to do a similar project again 8. As a courtesy to your readers on the Township Council, you may want to include a Recommendation section in which you briefly summarize the recommendations you would make for solving the municipality’s problem. 9. The Reference List must contain all materials you use in writing the Research Report It is crucial that you state all sources of information you use in a properly formatted bibliography. There are several conventions regarding the formatting of bibliographies. I suggest that you adhere to the APA format commonly used in the social sciences. If you major in the humanities or natural sciences and would like to use the system commonly used in your discipline, talk to me. Your Research Report must be based on properly cited professional and academic sources. Please refer to the Laurier library homepage and the Writing Centre homepage for the many available resources regarding Information Literacy (e.g., how to find reliable academic information, how to cite sources properly, how to incorporate secondary information into your own writing, and how to avoid committing plagiarism). Much of this information is linked under ‘Resources for your Research Project, but you may want to seek out additional resources. “How many sources do I need for this Research Report?” As a very crude rule of thumb that is valid for this Research Report only, you should buil…
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