QUESTION Based on how you will evaluate your EBP project, which independent and dependent variables do you need to collect? Why?
Variable is something that can change and or can have more than one value. A variable, as the name infers, is something that varies. The independent variable is the precursor while the dependent variable is the consequent. If the independent variable is an active variable, then we manipulate the values of the variable to study its effect on another variable. Dependent variable is the variable that is affected by the independent variable. The dependent variable is dependent on the independent variable (Kaur, 2013).
Based on my EBP project, high turnover rates among newly licensed nurses, my independent variables would be high stress levels, workplace violence, and a smooth transition with the help of mentor programs. According to multiple studies, these variables clearly affect if newly licensed nurses will remain in the workplace due to stress and lack of confidence. My dependent variable would be high turnover rates among newly licensed nurses due to stress, workplace violence and not having a mentor during their transition.
Kaur, S. (2013). Variables in research. Samarpan Institute of Nursing Sciences, 3(4). Retrieved from http://ijrrms.com/pdf/2013/jul-sep2013/IJRRMS%20Vol.3%20(4)_10.pdf
For my evidence-based practice (EBP) project on prevention of suicide in soldiers with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), I will use the Quasi-experiment. I chose the Quasi-experiment because it does not have a controlled group, as it would be unethical to give no treatments for patients who need interventions. â€œQuasi-experimental studies focus on determining the effectiveness of a treatment (independent variable) in producing a desired outcome (dependent variable) in a partially controlled settingâ€ (Grove, Gray & Burns, 2015, p. 35). Moreover, this project will use the Interrupted Time-Series Design, which will go in order as follows: pre-test, treatment and prost-test.
Although my desired outcome would be the non-existence of suicide in soldiers with PTSD, which I hope is to last for a lifetime, my dependent variable would be the added knowledge of soldiers about PTSD and how to get help and support. The same goes with the independent variable (treatment): the ideal treatment would be receiving the actual intervention that are provided in many behavioral health services in Fort Hood, such as Prolonged Exposure (PE), Cognitive Prolonged Therapy (CPT) and Eye-Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), which is beyond my scope of practice. I am also limited to time, knowing that PTSD treatment takes months to see results. Hence, my independent variable on this project is limited to the teaching itself, in hope that the information will stay with the soldiers even beyond their times of service.
Grove, S., Gray, J., Burns, N. (2015). Understanding Nursing Research, 6th Edition. [Pageburstl]. Retrieved from https://pageburstls.elsevier.com/#/books/97
Variables that depend on other factors and change as a result of an experiment are dependent variables (DV). The change is the presumed effect. Independent variables (IV) are stable and unaffected by other variables you are attempting to measure. It refers to the experimental condition that is introduced by the investigator causing the presumed change (University of Southern California ( USC) libraries, 2018). Understanding these two concepts will help to better evaluate other peopleâ€™s research so that they can apply them in your own research ( USC Libraries, 2018) .
Heart rate variability training with mindfulness
It is my hope that the with my project, (DV) teaching of mindfulness and self-regulation through breath work and using the visual tool of HeartMath HRV measurement interactive computer program, will improve (IV)classroom behaviors, self-regulation, self-awareness and sense of peace for the benefit of the students and a healthy learning environment. My measurement will be fewer classroom disruptive behaviors, ability to sit still and retain information, participate in the intervention, and not distract others while observing other students. While there are immediate responses that are measurable, maintenance will depend on participation of the instructor, commitment level of the individual student as well as the degree they learned the tool. I am hoping to go back next year and see if the students and instructor still are benefitting from the tool. Several students have indicated incorporating the tool into their coping in school and daily life so far. This was a quasi-type experiment as all students were given the opportunity to participate as a group in class as it was not fair to deny students access to coping skills. Some self-selected (with parental consent) to participate using the monitor and game function directly with the computer sensor. The instructor offered the tool to each childâ€™s parent.
Some of the limitations I had to controlling the environment were distractions in the classroom due to existing behaviors, interruptions with announcements overhead, changes in schedule (Break due to state testing, holidays over Easter week etc., substitute teachers with different agendas), Fire drills, holidays, absences and illnesses of children in the classroom.
Several instructors from other classrooms would like to incorporate this tool in their classes next year after trying the tool themselves. There have been suggestions that I also teach the studentâ€™s parents in an evening course so that there is a reinforcement at home with the practice learned at school. This could have many extended benefits for the school nurse and communication regarding childrenâ€™s health and behavior needs.
University of Southern California ( USC) Libraries (2018). Organizing your social sciences research paper: Independent and dependent variables. Retrieved from:
Not all EBP projects result in statistically significant results. Define clinical significance, and explain the difference between clinical and statistical significance. How can you use clinical significance to support positive outcomes in your project?
There are two types of significance used to interpret research studies, statistical significance and clinical significance. One answers the question, Are the statistical results due to random chance? and the other answers the question, Will the results matter to our patients? Statistical significance has to do with the likelihood that a research result is true and not just simply a matter of chance. Clinical significance is an independent interpretation of a research result as practical or meaningful for the patient and thus likely to affect provider behavior (Thompson, 2017).
A decrease in turnover rates among newly licensed nurses after introducing education on effects of workplace violence during unit and hospital wide meetings would be considered a clinically significant outcome. Also, if newly licensed nurses are feeling more confident as they transition into practice with the help of mentor programs, I would also consider this to be a clinically significant outcome in the reduction of high turnover rates.
Thompson, C. (2017). Whatâ€™s the difference between statistical and clinical significance? Retrived from https://nursingeducationexpert.com/difference-statistical-significance-clinical-significance/
It is important to know if the treatment recommended is effective enough that it could be recommended as a practical treatment for the patient. If it is palpable, or noticeable to the patient and effects their daily quality of life, then it is considered clinically important or significant. This doesnâ€™t mean that it would hold up as â€œproveableâ€ in a clinical trial however as many variables could influence the result.
Here is an example in a study measuring clinical significanceof a nursing intervention with and without combined interventions for a patient sample co-infected with UC and lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The results show statistical validation of the clinical results making it statistically significant. In the control group The conventional medical nursing was performed, however the observation group received pertinent clinical nursing practices related to such as health education, diet, and mental health strategies intervention, based on the control group. After nursing interventions the control group showed higher levels of depression 37.90 Â± 8.03 and anxiety 36.26 Â± 9.54 compared to the observation group. When comparing the two groups the difference was statistically significant with (P<0.05).
Quality of life showed a score 3.97 Â± 1.04 with the observation group, significantly higher 3.11 Â± 0.95 than the control group receiving nursing interventions, the comparative differences between showed statistical significance of (P<0.05). The conclusion showed clinical nursing path significantly improves negative emotions and QOL in patient sample co-infected with UC and lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage
For my project I can look at the significant results of other studies. By describing the common variables and their application to analyzing the my research problem in such a way that the reader obtains a clear understanding of the relationships between common variables and why they are important. This is also relevant to replicating their work using the same variables but applied in a different way.
Reference: Hu, N., Fu, X. J., Guo, H. R., & Gu, X. Y. (2017). Combined clinical nursing path influencing negative emotions and living quality of patients co-infected with ulcerative colitis and lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Biomedical Research, 28(22).
Retrieved form: http://www.alliedacademies.org/articles/combined-c…
Clinical significance means that the results of a test are of clinical interest or the results are relevant to patient (Leyva, 2017). If something is clinically significant there has been a noticed improvement in a patient outcome. Statistical significance is dependent on sample size or the p value or how the hypothesis of a study is being tested (Leyva, 2017). A test result may not have statistical significance but be clinically significant or vice versa (Leyva, 2017). If a study shows a that a treatment shows statistical significance that it improves a patientâ€™s condition this does not mean that it is clinically significant because relevance is determined by a clinician or the patient themselves (Leyva, 2017). The goal of this change proposal is to identify the inconsistencies in performing Pap smears according to guidelines and implementing EBP interventions that will improve CCS rates, which in turn will improve patient outcomes, lower healthcare costs, and ultimately reduce mortality rates. If there is an increase in cervical cancer screening due to more women participating in their annual well women exams then this would be clinically significant.
Leyva De La Rios, C. D. (2017, March 23). Statistical significance vs. clinical significance. [blog post]. Retrieved from http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2016/04/how-to-cite-a-blog-post-in-apa-style.html