Label the Stages of Cell Cycle and Mitosis Questions

Label the Stages of Cell Cycle and Mitosis Questions

Assignment 2: Biol 307 (20 points)

Name: Alexus Vescovi
Label the stages of the cell cycle and mitosis (5 points):

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Label the stages of the meiosis (5 points):

Answer these questions (10 points):

 

  1. Define interphase and describe what happens during this part of the cell cycle.

 

Interphase is the first stage of the cell cycle. Here the cell prepares for the cell division and replicates its chromosomes, i.e., duplicates the DNA. The G1-stage in the interphase is the preparatory phase, where the cell produces the required enzymes for division and grows in size. In the S-phase, the DNA is duplicated/replicated so that the amount of DNA is double before the cell goes into mitosis or meiosis. The G2-phase also acts as a checkpoint and prepares some extra enzymes, in addition to the replication of some organelles.

 

  1. Define mitosis in terms of the genetic material in the original and daughter cells.

 

In mitosis, the genetic material in the original and daughter cells is the same. Before the start of the mitotic phase, the S-phase doubles the chromosome through replication. While, during mitosis, the chromosomes are segregated, and the amount of genetic material is restored. Since there is no mixing, the daughter cells are the same as the original one.

 

  1. List the four stages of mitosis and the final step in mitotic cell division.

The four stages of mitosis are Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase. The final step in the mitotic cell division is cytokinesis, where the cell membrane bifurcates the cell in between and divides them into complete two daughter cells.

  1. How is mitosis different from meiosis?
Mitosis Meiosis
It completes in one division It requires two subsequent divisions
There is no pairing or formation of synapsis There is the formation of pairing or synapsis
There is no chiasma formation or crossing over There is a formation of the chiasma, and crossing over takes place
The exchange of genetic material does not occur There is a predominant exchange of genetic material
The chromosome number remains the same, and two daughter cells are formed The chromosome number halves and four daughter cells are formed

 

  1. How is meiosis I different from meiosis ll?

 

Meiosis I Meiosis II
It reduces the chromosome number in the daughter cells It keeps the chromosome number the same in both parent and daughter cells
Homologous chromosomes are present before the start of meiosis I Bivalent chromosomes are present before the start of meiosis II
Chromosomal cross-over happens There is no chromosomal cross-over
Meiosis I is preceded by interphase There is no interphase before meiosis II