Geologic Processes and Environmental

Geologic Processes and Environmental

Question 3 1 pts The concept of ‘Intergenerational Equity’ is important in engineering because of the longevity of our technologies and projects. Yes, because whatever we do now in engineering future generations will inherit – the good side especially. Yes, because whatever we do now in engineering future generations will inherit – both the good and bad sides. Yes, because whatever we do now in engineering future generations will inherit – the bad side especially. No, this principle has no relevance for engineering whatsoever. O None of the above. Question 4 1 pts Carrying capacity is an important concept in ecology and sustainable development. It is best defined as: O Carrying capacity is a measure of the use of the renewable resources by society relative to stocks and flows provided by an ecosystem Carrying capacity is a measure of the use of the non-renewable resources by society relative to stocks and flows provided by an ecosystem O Carrying capacity is a measure of the ability of an ecosystem to absorb pollution and wastes from the use of non- renewable resources by society Carrying capacity is a measure of the use of the resource stocks and flows provided by an ecosystem relative to the remaining resources needed by the ecosystem for stability and regeneration o None of the above Question 2 1 pts The definition of sustainable development proposed by the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), as Chaired by Gro Harlem Brundtland, is best stated as: O economic development that meets the needs of the present and still allows a good economic future for the next generation environmental protection that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to enjoy a sustainable environment O reducing social impacts in the current generation so that future generations enjoy a more sustainable society development that allows the current generation to thrive without hurting the ability of future generations to generate their own needs O None of the above Question 1 1 pts The ‘IPAT’ equation is very important in sustainability. Which of the following is the best description for it? IPAT is a simplified but practical equation to quantify sustainable development IPAT is a conceptual approach to understand the links between population, affluence and technology towards unsustainable development O IPAT is a conceptual approach to examine the links between population, affluence and technology towards sustainable development O IPAT is a conceptual approach to assess the impact on our planet as a function of population, affluence and technology All of the above Question 8 1 pts Limestone is a metamorphic rock. True or false? True False Question 7 1 pts In the mining industry, a mineral resource is specifically defined as: A mineral resource is an enriched volume of rock containing certain metals or minerals which could never be exploited by society A mineral resource is a volume of rock containing pure metals or minerals which could be potentially exploited by society A mineral resource is an enriched volume of rock containing certain metals or minerals which could be potentially exploited by society O A mineral resource is an enriched volume of rock containing a single metal or mineral which could be potentially exploited by society O None of the above Question 6 1 pts Weathering is an important process in geology. The products of weathering can best be described as: Detrital products of smaller grain size. Chemical products of identical composition Chemical products of different composition but similar grain size Chemical products of different composition but different grain size O Detrital or chemical products of different composition and grain size Question 15 1 pts The table below gives the carbon intensity of each state’s electricity network for the year 2014/15. Choose the best option below which explains the reasons for the carbon intensity. (Note that the ACT is combined with NSW and the NT is treated as a state for this question) VIC NSW-ACT QLD SA WA TAS NT t CO2- e/MWhe 1.25 0.96 0.92 0.63 0.78 0.14 0.75 All states except TAS rely mostly on coal The eastern mainland states (QLD, NSW-ACT, VIC) are coal-dominant while all others are gas-dominant The eastern mainland states (QLD, NSW-ACT, VIC) are coal-dominant while all others are hydroelectricity-dominant The eastern mainland states (QLD, NSW-ACT, VIC) are coal-dominant while SA-WA-NT are gas-dominant O VIC is brown coal-dominant, QLD and NSW-ACT are black coal-dominant, SA-WA-NT are gas-dominant but TAS is hydroelectricity-dominant Question 13 1 pts Oil has been an important energy source for one and a half centuries, yet its future is being increasingly challenged. Which of the following options best describes the constraints facing the oil industry? O conventional petroleum reservoirs are harder to find, much deeper in geology, often in deeper waters, are increasingly poorer in quality (especially toxic impurities such as hydrogen sulfide) EROEl values are declining air pollution and climate change are major problems electric vehicles are becoming increasingly competitive to conventional vehicles and preferred by sustainability conscious consumers O All of the above Question 12 1 pts A common unit for electrical energy is the ‘watt-hour’. Convert 1 TWh to joules: O 3.6 TJ O 3.6 GJ O 3.6 PJ 0 27.8 GJ 0 27.8 MJ Question 11 1 pts The following are ranked lists of carbon intensity (in units of t CO2-e/t fuel) for various energy sources (left is lowest, right is highest). Which option is the most correct? biodiesel, petrol, brown coal, diesel fuel oil O brown coal, coking coal, anthracite coal, diesel fuel oil brown coal, bituminous coal, automotive diesel, heavy vehicle diesel fuel oil ethanol, dry wood, kerosene jetfuel, brown coal O None of the above Question 10 1 pts A very common method of mining is the use of open pits to extract ore. The main environmental disadvantages of this could best be described as: O generation of large volumes of waste rock potential sterilisation of land complete removal of an ecosystem and its biodiversity makes uneconomic projects suddenly economic Answers (a) (b) (c) are reasonable Question 9 1 pts In the mining industry, an ore reserve is specifically defined as: An ore reserve is an enriched volume of rock containing certain metals or minerals which could never be exploited by society An ore reserve is an enriched volume of rock containing certain metals or minerals which could be potentially exploited by society An ore reserve is a volume of rock containing pure metals or minerals which could be potentially exploited by society An ore reserve is an enriched volume of rock containing a single metal or mineral which could be potentially exploited by society None of the above Question 18 1 pts Embodied water is also known as virtual water. It is possible to have a value of virtual water less than one? Choose the best response below. Yes, as this accounts for evaporative losses O Yes, as this accounts for leaks in the system No, losses in the system means that virtual water can never be less than one No, losses in the system means that virtual water can never be more than one O None of the above Question 17 1 pts Urban areas lead to the severe degradation of streams and their aquatic ecosystems. Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) address this by: increasing water storage in the catchment (e.g. wetlands) O implementing technologies which provide for treatment of stormwater before it enters a stream (e.g. swales, biofilters) encourages alternative sources of water to minimise pressure on external water supply catchments removing toxic pollutants such as heavy metals from stormwater O All of the above Question 16 1 pts A key outcome of Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) is a reduction in flood frequency but an increase in flood peak. True or false? O True O False Question 14 1 pts The following are ranked lists of ERo El values for various energy sources (left is highest, right is lowest). Which option is the most correct? coal, hydroelectricity, solar photovoltaic panels, ethanol hydroelectricity, conventional oil, solar photovoltaic panels, ethanol nuclear, tar sands, shale oil, conventional oil, solar photovoltaic panels nuclear, wind, solar thermal, biodiesel None of the above Question 15 1 pts The table below gives the carbon intensity of each state’s electricity network for the year 2014/15. Choose the best option below which explains the reasons for the carbon intensity. (Note that the ACT is combined with NSW and the NT is treated as a state for this question) VIC NSW-ACT QLD SA WA TAS NT t CO2- e/MWhe 1.25 0.96 0.92 0.63 0.78 0.14 0.75 O All states except TAS rely mostly on coal The eastern mainland states (QLD, NSW-ACT, VIC) are coal-dominant while all others are gas-dominant The eastern mainland states (QLD, NSW-ACT, VIC) are coal-dominant while all others are hydroelectricity-dominant The eastern mainland states (QLD, NSW-ACT, VIC) are coal-dominant while SA-WA-NT are gas-dominant O VIC is brown coal-dominant, QLD and NSW-ACT are black coal-dominant, SA-WA-NT are gas-dominant but TAS is hydroelectricity-dominant Question 19 1 pts There is 100 times more usable water in groundwater than surface water. True or false? True O False Question 20 1 pts Salinity is a key measure of water quality and whether or not a water source may be suitable for humans for drinking. For the best quality, drinking water in Australia should be less than: O 600 ug/L 600 g/L 600 S/cm 600 g/mL 0.6 g/L Question 24 1 pts Global wheat production per capita has been stable for nearly 50 years. True or false? True O False Question 23 1 pts The world produces enough reasonable quality food for everyone but the primary causes of severe famine remains drought and/or poor agricultural land management. True or false? O True False Question 22 1 pts The ‘Green Revolution’ is best described as the rise of organic agriculture and permaculture from the 1980s – true or false? O True O False Question 21 1 pts Global greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture are much less than those from the electricity sector. True or false? True False Question 25 1 pts In agriculture, greenhouse gas emissions are directly released from: O (a) methane from cows O (b) nitrous oxide from fertilizers O (C) carbon dioxide from soil O (d) Answers (a) and (b) are both reasonable O (e) Answers (a) (b) and (c) are reasonable
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