Environment Building

Environment Building

Understanding Urbanism Edited by Dallas Rogers · Adrienne Keane Tooran Alizadeh · Jacqueline Nelson Understanding Urbanism Dallas Rogers • Adrienne Keane Tooran Alizadeh • Jacqueline Nelson Editors Understanding Urbanism Editors Dallas Rogers School of Architecture Design and Planning University of Sydney Darlington, NSW Australia Tooran Alizadeh School of Architecture Design and Planning University of Sydney Darlington, NSW Australia Adrienne Keane School of Architecture Design and Planning University of Sydney Darlington, NSW Australia Jacqueline Nelson Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences University of Technology Sydney Broadway, NSW Australia ISBN 978-981-15-4385-2    ISBN 978-981-15-4386-9 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-4386-9 (eBook) © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are solely and exclusively licensed by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors, and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Cover image © TierneyMJ / shutterstock This Palgrave Macmillan imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. The registered company address is: 152 Beach Road, #21-01/04 Gateway East, Singapore 189721, Singapore About this book We acknowledge that we edited this book on the traditional land of the Gadigal people of the Eora Nation. It is upon their ancestral lands that the University of Sydney and University of Technology Sydney are built. As we share our own knowledge through this book may we also pay respect to the knowledge embedded forever within the Aboriginal Custodianship of Country. In early 2017 emergency repairs to a leaking roof in the Wilkinson Building, the home of the University of Sydney’s School of Architecture, Design and Planning, somewhat fortunately displaced Dallas and Tooran from their shared office. They took up residence in a shared office with Adrienne on the fifth floor of the Wilkinson Building. The idea for this book was born in that shared office in mid-2017, and it took form as we informally discussed our teaching programs for undergraduate and masters students in our school. Jacqueline from the University of Technology Sydney came onboard soon after to provide editorial guidance around the study of the cultural dimensions of cities. We talked about the need for an entry-level university book that would provide a basic multidisciplinary overview of cities. We imagined a target audience of first year undergraduate students working across a range of disciplines. It had to be a plain English text that was easy to read, and we laboured over the choice of urban topics. We cover a lot of ground in this book and we asked the authors to address some important issues; the most significant of which is the Indigenous context of studies of urbanism in settler-societies like Australia. We asked the authors to use Aboriginal placenames first in their chapters, as is increasingly common in Australian urban studies. You will see this in the writing when the authors talk about Naarm/Melbourne or Gadigal land. But there is also a clear silence in the pages of this book too, namely the work of scholars from the Global South. Countries in the Global South such as China and India are on the frontline of the rapid urbanisation of the world. It would be useful to compliment the chapters in the book with the work of scholars such as Ananya Roy and Nezar AlSayyad. This book is a collaboration between authors and editors. We learned a lot from their work, and in turn, this informed the development of all the chapters. The quality of the work is also enhanced by our peers who reviewed the chapters. We appreciate their freely given time and their academic criticisms which elevated this work. We also acknowledge the University of Sydney School of Architecture, Design and v vi About this book Planning for supporting us in our endeavours and its confidence in this book as a unique and timely resource for emerging built environment professionals. Chapter 14 draws on material published in Australian Planner titled ‘Participatory, technocratic and neoliberal planning: an untenable planning governance ménage à trois’ and is reproduced here with permission from Taylor and Francis (RightsLink ref. no. 4724721265160). We thank Taylor and Francis for the opportunity to update our previous work. We would like to thank the University of Sydney’s School of Architecture, Design and Planning for supporting this book project. Finally, a special thanks to the authors who contributed to this project and made this book possible. Dallas, Adrienne, Tooran and Jacqueline. Contents 1 Understanding Urbanism��������������������������������������������������������������������������   1 Dallas Rogers 2 Indigenous Cities���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 15 Libby Porter 3 Economic Cities������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 27 Thomas Sigler, Glen Searle, and Kirsten Martinus 4 Planned Cities�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 47 Adrienne Keane and Paul Jones 5 Designing Cities������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 61 Deena Ridenour and Tooran Alizadeh 6 Heritage Cities�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 87 James Lesh and Cameron Logan 7 Mobile Cities���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 103 Nina Verzosa and Crystal Legacy 8 Public Cities������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 117 Natalie Osborne and Tooran Alizadeh 9 Multicultural Cities������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 135 Jacqueline Nelson and Christina Ho 10 Digital Cities ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 151 Tooran Alizadeh and Kurt Iveson 11 Data, Science and Cities���������������������������������������������������������������������������� 169 Somwrita Sarkar and Reza Farid 12 Green Cities������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 179 Adrienne Keane and Peter Davies 13 Healthy Cities �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 195 Jennifer L. Kent and Susan Thompson 14 Political Cities�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 211 Dallas Rogers and Michael Mossman vii Contributors Tooran Alizadeh School of Architecture, Design and Planning, University of Sydney, Darlington, NSW, Australia Peter Davies Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW, Australia Reza Farid Institute for Integrated and Intelligent Systems (IIIS), Griffith University, Mount Gravatt, QLD, Australia Christina Ho School of Communication, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW, Australia Kurt Iveson School of Geosciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Paul Jones School of Architecture, Design and Planning, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia Adrienne Keane School of Architecture, Design and Planning, University of Sydney, Darlington, NSW, Australia Jennifer L. Kent School of Architecture, Design and Planning, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Crystal Legacy Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia James Lesh Faculty of Architetcure, Building and Planning, University of Melbourne, Sydney, Australia Cameron Logan School of Architecture, Design and Planning, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia Kirsten Martinus Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts, Business, Law and Education, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia Michael Mossman School of Architecture, Design and Planning, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia ix x Contributors Jacqueline Nelson School of Communication, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW, Australia Natalie Osborne School of Environment and Science, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD, Australia Libby Porter Professor, Centre for Urban Research, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia Deena Ridenour School of Architecture, Design and Planning, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia Dallas Rogers School of Architecture, Design and Planning, University of Sydney, Darlington, NSW, Australia Somwrita Sarkar School of Architecture, Design and Planning, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Glen Searle School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia School of Architecture, Design and Planning, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia Thomas Sigler School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia Susan Thompson City Futures Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia Nina Verzosa Institute of Transport and Logistics Studies, The University of Sydney Business School, Sydney, NSW, Australia 1 Understanding Urbanism Dallas Rogers Abstract By 2050 almost 70 per cent of the world’s people are predicted to live in cities. This chapter begins with a discussion about the difference between urbanisation and urbanism, and suggests that it is at the intersections of the various definitions of these ideas that the most important discussions about cities take place. The Aboriginal context of urban development in Australia is discussed as a case in point. The substantive sections provide six brief contextual primers for the chapters in this book, covering: (1) professions and practices; (2) morphology and change; (3) scales and agglomerations; (4) infrastructures and services; (5) experiences and cultures; and (6) inquiry and analysis. The conclusion suggests to understand the relationships between the physical form and social function of cities, and how urbanisation makes people, changes places, shifts power relations, creates property or changes cultures requires a very broad range of data collection and analysis tools, as well as a broad sweep of urbanism theory. 1.1 Understanding Urbanism 1.1.1 What Is Urbanisation and Urbanism? This is a question that has been asked for a very long time, a question that is hard to answer. In his meditations on government, democracy and the ancient Athenian city-state the philosopher Aristotle (384–322 B.C.E) said, The amalgamation of numerous villages creates a unified city-state, large enough to be self-­ sufficient or nearly so, starting from the need to survive, and continuing its existence for the sake of a comfortable lifestyle. D. Rogers (*) School of Architecture, Design and Planning, University of Sydney, Darlington, NSW, Australia e-mail: dallas.rogers@sydney.edu.au © The Author(s) 2020 D. Rogers et al. (eds.), Understanding Urbanism, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-4386-9_1 1 2 D. Rogers As hinted at here by Aristotle, at its most foundational, urbanisation ‘is the increase in the proportion of a population that is urban as opposed to rural’ (Gate and Stout 2011: 15 citing Davis 2011: Davis 1965). Historically, urbanisation was underwritten by immigration from the countryside into the city. This rural to urban migration driver of urbanisation is still largely true today. At the turn of the twenty-­ first century more than 50 per cent of the world’s people lived in cities. In 2020 that figure had reached 55 per cent, and by 2050 almost 70 per cent of the world’s people are predicted to live in cities (United Nations 2018). Countries with populations over 1 billion people, such as China (1.38 billion) and India (1.34 billion), will be key to global urbanisation. Consider this: when the Peoples’ Republic of China was established in 1949 only 10 per cent of the national population lived in cities (Ren 2013). By 1978, a time of major market reforms, that figure had only reached 20 per cent. But 55 per cent of the national population was urban in 2015 and that figure is predicted to reach 60 per cent by 2030. This ‘demographic’ or ‘population mobility’ definition of urbanisation is a useful starting point for our discussion because it suggests that urbanisation and urbanism are not the same thing. Urbanism is about what happens inside cities, the form and function of cities, and how cities relate to the rural. It often refers to the study of how inhabitants of urban or urbanising areas interact with the social and built environments of cities. What marks the boundary between the rural and the urban or a town from a city is the topic of an extended and ongoing debate in urban studies (Gate and Stout 2011; Lefebvre 1970/2003). In 1938, Louis Wirth (1938) published Urbanism as a way of life and suggested there were three key urban characteristics: a large population, a high population density, and social heterogeneity. Wirth proposed with his universal social theory of the city that the complex phenomena of urbanism could be understood through an analysis of a limited number of basic categories. ‘A sociologically significant definition of the city’, writes Wirth (1938:190), ‘seeks to select those elements of urbanism which mark it as a distinctive mode of human group life’. Wirth’s idea that ‘urban difference’ rather than ‘rural similarity’ shaped the social relations in the city was a powerful heuristic in its day, even if sociologists and geographers later rejected universal theories of the city like his. From Aristotle to Wirth and beyond, cities have be variously defined and analysed by population density, geographic size, integrated economies with a diversity of goods and services, the proliferation of specific building types or changes in urban form such as high-­ rise buildings, high population recreational spaces such as stadiums and theatres, new forms of government and urban governance, or the increasing detachment of a population from directly providing their own food and energy needs (Brenner and Schmid 2014; Bounds 2004; Engels 1845; Graham and Hewitt 2013; LeGates and Stout 2011; Lefebvre 1970/2003; Mumford 1961). Cities might also be defined by what they produce, such as housing wealth or inequality, or the forms of pollution, noise, water and food shortages, and other issues and inequalities that are somewhat unique to urban environments. It is at the intersections and edges of the various definitions and analyses that the most interesting discussions about cities take place. But specificity is important. The architect Alexander D’Hooghe (2010:13) provocatively suggests that 1 Understanding Urbanism 3 ‘urbanism’ today ‘describes the world as it is, and also all its alternatives. Taken this way, it now means everything and its opposite. Such a word does not deserve to exist. It is wholly empty’ (p.13). For the term ‘urbanism’ to have practical utility, then, the build environment professions ‘should not compound urbanism’s attempt to be everything to everyone. It needs narrow-mindedness’ (p.13). As such, we are talking about urbanism in a very narrow way in this book, as a set of concerns and issues associated with the built environment professions (see our six urbanism themes below); concerns that are common to people who study urbanism or practice a built environment profession and call themselves urbanists. An urbanist might be interested in, for example, how the number of people living in poverty in China fell ‘from 250 million at the start of the reform process in 1978 to 80 million people by the end of 1993 and 29.27 million in 2001’, as people moved into cities to find work and other opportunities (Jacques, 2012, p.162). In Australia, urbanist and Yugembir man, Dillon Kombumerri, a principal architect in the Office of the Government Architect NSW, has been involved in the Sydney Ochre Grid, a ‘mapping project that seeks to connect both Aboriginal and nonAbor…
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