Earthquake in Haiti Discussion
SCI-20034-XH165 Natural Scienc… Project & Resources Table of Contents Announcements Project Discussions JG Project Results FAQs Calendar James Griﬃn Support Project Instructions Project Instructions # ” Listen ! Competency In this project, you will demonstrate your mastery of the following competency: Use natural sciences methodologies to explain natural phenomena Scenario You work for Eco-Focused Response (EFR), a nonprofit environmental organiza!on that provides resources and support to help communi!es prepare for and recover from natural phenomena; it also develops and implements strategies to address issues such as pollu!on, hazardous material, and waste disposal. As part of a community outreach eﬀort, the organiza!on would like to increase understanding of the scien!fic methods used by the organiza!on and at the same !me provide useful informa!on concerning a natural phenomenon and a specific : problem related to that phenomenon. Tools The organiza!on asked visitors to their website to iden!fy a natural phenomenon that has impacted them personally and that they would like to learn more about. The top three responses were hurricanes, wildfires, and earthquakes. Your manager has asked you to select one of the top three natural phenomena and create a brief informa!ve ar!cle that provides informa!on about the phenomenon and uses scien!fic methods to explore a specific problem caused by the phenomenon. Direc!ons Once you have selected a phenomenon (hurricane, wildfire, or earthquake), gather informa!on about that : phenomenon that can be used to form direct and indirect observa!ons—you may also include your personal phenomenon that can be used to form direct and indirect observa!ons—you may also include your personal experiences with this phenomenon—and then complete the process listed below. You must include the following informa!on for the chosen phenomenon in your 500- to 750-word informa!ve online ar!cle. (For addi!onal informa!on, see the Sample Nor’Easter Ar!cle document in the Suppor!ng Materials sec!on.) Make and describe observa!ons you no!ce based on the resources you have gathered. What are the condi!ons that exist? What are the environmental factors? What is the loca!on of the occurrence? What similari!es and diﬀerences exist between diﬀerent events of your chosen phenomenon? Define and provide details about a specific problem caused by the phenomenon you selected. Specific problems might include environmental eﬀects (habitat destruc!on, pollu!on or waste releases, etc.), public health issues (access to safe water, exposure to communicable diseases, human displacement), infrastructural damage, and so on. Develop a hypothesis from the informa!on you have gathered. Gather empirical evidence. You must use a minimum of three resources that meet the CRAAPO (currency, relevance, authority, accuracy, purpose, and objec!vity) criteria. Use the Ge#ng Started with Research at Shapiro Library link in the Suppor!ng Materials sec!on to access informa!on on this method. For addi!onal informa!on and examples of empirical evidence, see the Sample Nor’Easter Ar!cle document in the Suppor!ng Materials sec!on. Summarize your results based on the data you used (the informa!on found in the sources and the connec!on to the hypothesis) and include at least one sugges!on individuals could use to reduce the risk and/or impact of the iden!fied problem. Formulate a conclusion based on your data. Determine whether your conclusion supports or refutes (or does not support) your hypothesis. What to Submit Every project has a deliverable or deliverables, which are the files that must be submi$ed before your project can be assessed. For this project, you must submit the following: Informa!ve Online Ar!cle Your organiza!on is looking for an informa!ve 500–750 word online ar!cle that details the use of the scien!fic method to explain a natural phenomenon and a specific problem caused by that phenomenon. Suppor!ng Materials The following resource(s) may help support your work on the project: : Cita!on Help Cita!on Help Need help ci!ng your sources? Use the CfA Cita!on Guide and Cita!on Maker. Reading: Sample Nor’Easter Ar!cle Use this sample as a guide for researching and wri!ng your online informa!ve ar!cle. The references in the ar!cle include examples of empirical evidence that can be used to support your hypothesis. Reading: Wri!ng Guide Review the tutorials and resources in the Wri!ng Guide document if you need help with the wri!ng aspects of this project. Shapiro Library: Ge#ng Started with Research at Shapiro Library This Shapiro Library resource guide will help you research relevant informa!on and locate and evaluate the credibility Reflect in ePortfolio Download Print Open with docReader Activity Details Task: View this topic : Read all about your project here. This includes the project scenario, directions for completing the project, a list of what you will need to submit, and supporting materials that may help you complete the project. Sample Nor’Easter Article Nor’easters Natural disasters are significant acts of nature that can lead to devastating consequences during the actual event or in the aftermath of the event. A nor’easter is an extratropical cyclonic storm that typically occurs between September and April (Donegan, 2018). These storms develop as low-pressure centers forming along the east coast, generally between Georgia and New Jersey. These low pressure centers form when cold arctic air transported southeast by the polar jet stream meets the warm moist air from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic. The temperature difference between these air masses leads to conditions that are conducive to forming a nor’easter (National Weather Service, n.d.; Davis & Dolan, 1993). Although they can be similar in appearance to a hurricane, nor’easters are fueled by coldcore low-pressure systems and occur further north than hurricanes, which are fueled by warm-core lowpressure systems and generally occur further south in the tropics. Once nor’easters form, these storms begin to move north along the east coast and increase in intensity, becoming the most intense near New England and the Canadian Maritime Provinces (NOAA, 2013). We generally associate nor’easters with heavy snow, but these storms can bring with them heavy rain, hurricane-like winds, rough seas, and even coastal flooding. Because the eastern coastline is heavily populated with cities such as Washington, D.C.; Philadelphia; New York; and Boston, these storms can have catastrophic effects, especially since the impacts of the storm are concentrated along the coast (Davis & Dolan, 1993). Since these storms can be associated with varied types of precipitation, this article will focus on coastal erosion, as coastal erosion can occur in these storms no matter the type of precipitation involved. Coastal erosion is the overall loss of coastal land due to the action of wind and water. Large storm waves can be a major agent of coastal erosion. Because of this, I hypothesize that the larger the storm waves, the greater the resulting coastal erosion. According to Ramsey, Leathers, Wells, & Talley (1998), it may not necessarily be the size of the waves that have the greatest effect on beach erosion, but more so the length of the storm. Slower moving storms can affect an area for a longer period of time and can therefore interfere with the natural tidal cycles, increasing the flooding and erosion of the beach and dunes in those affected areas. Storm tide, wave energy, and storm duration have been listed as the three major factors that determine coastal erosion potential, but it has been found that erosion potential was more dependent on storm tide than the other two factors. When a storm occurs during low tide, large waves may still only have a minor impact on the beach and coastal dunes, whereas a storm that occurs during high tide can have a much greater impact on erosion and property damage (Zhang, Douglas, & Leatherman, 2001). Dean (1991) also determined that the erosion potential of wave setup, or the increased water level due to breaking waves, is minor compared to the storm tides during storms. Some solutions that have been implemented to reduce coastal erosion include the use of beach grass plantings, drift fencing, and fiber rolls to protect the base of coastal slopes. Beach restoration, where sand is taken from an offshore location and used to replenish sand lost from erosion, has also been used (Michniewicz, 2017). The Nature Conservancy has developed a suite of geospatial applications that can be used to help determine ways to assess risk and vulnerability of coastal regions to storm surges and erosion, as well as to aid in solving coastal management challenges like coastal erosion, too (Richardson, 2014). These applications can help watershed planners reduce the risk of flooding and erosion by employing natural defenses, such as tidal marshes, seagrass beds, and oyster reefs to protect coastal communities. After a review of the literature and a comparison of findings from various studies, it seems that the size of the wave may not be the most important factor involved in coastal erosion from nor’easters. In fact, the most important factors that seemed to affect beach erosion were the duration of the storm and the storm tides themselves. Therefore, although the size of the wave could play a role in coastal erosion, the research does not support my hypothesis that it was a major cause of coastal erosion. References Davis, R. E., & Dolan, R. (1993). Nor’easters. American Scientist, Vol. 81(5). Retrieved from https://wwwjstor-org.ezproxy.snhu.edu/stable/29775010 Dean, R. G. (1991). Equilibrium beach profiles: Characteristics and applications. Journal of Coastal Research, Vol. 7(1). Retrieved from https://www-jstororg.ezproxy.snhu.edu/stable/pdf/4297805.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3Af8bd45e66bb4d2b9f15ad 03305abea8e Donegan, B. (2018). What is a nor’easter? Retrieved from https://weather.com/science/weatherexplainers/news/noreaster-snow-rain-wind-northeast-explainer Michniewicz, R. P. (2017). Shorefront protection methods. Retrieved from https://coastalengineeringcompany.com/knowledge-base/protecting-our-coastline National Weather Service. (n.d.). What is a Nor’easter? Retrieved from https://www.weather.gov/safety/winter-noreaster NOAA. (2013). Know the dangers of nor’easters. Retrieved from https://web.archive.org/web/20160214123432/http://www.noaa.gov/features/03_protecting/ noreasters.html Ramsey, K. W., Leathers, D. J., Wells, D. V., & Talley, J. H. (1998). Summary report: The coastal storms of January 27-29 and February 4-6, 1998, Delaware and Maryland. Delaware Geological Survey Open File Report No. 40. Retrieved from https://www.dgs.udel.edu/sites/default/files/publications/OFR40.pdf Richardson, K. (2014). Preparing coastal areas for the coming storms. Retrieved from http://www.esri.com/esri-news/arcwatch/0614/preparing-coastal-areas-for-the-coming-storms Zhang, K, Douglas, B. C., & Leatherman, S. P. (2001). Beach erosion potential for severe nor’easters. Journal of Coastal Research, Vol. 17(2). Retrieved from https://www-jstor- org.ezproxy.snhu.edu/stable/pdf/4300181.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A8a386f54ddf9bd4a9303a 1b005aa5bc5 TO DEFEND AGAINST IS AMERICA EXTREME WEATHER, U.S. READY FOR CITIES MUST ACCEPT THE NEXT SUPERSTORM? THAT SURVIVAL MEANS CHANGE—TO THE ECONOMY AND ALSO TO THE COUNTRY’S CONCEPTION OF ITSELF. BY SEAN PATRICK COOPER Wednesday in December, New York’s Hunts Point Market was charged with the kind of constant, kinetic energy one would expect from the largest food distribution center in the world. Across a loading dock, a young man pushed a hand truck piled high with boxes of Brazilian mangoes. In the other direction, a quarter-ton of Idaho potatoes zipped past on a forklift. A frenzy of boots and wheels pulverized spilled strawberries into a dark pool of liquid fruit. Under the bright fluorescent lights, giant towers of mandarin oranges from California, blueberries from Chile, and bell peppers from the Netherlands swiftly disappeared into nearby trucks. The scale of the vast refrigerated storerooms was otherworldly; one warehouse held enough onions seemingly to supply an entire civilization. In the seafood terminal, fresh perch from Egypt, caught in the Nile, arrived on ice. Men in rubber pants and knee-high boots deftly hoisted the fish onto cutting tables with metal PHOTO ILLUSTRATION BY ALEX WILLIAMSON hooks, while r estaurateurs and fishmongers roamed the stalls, making deals with fistfuls of cash. In a glass-windowed office overlooking the docks, five clean-shaven men in sweaters sipped mugs of coffee behind computer monitors, keeping tabs on the chaos. All told, 8,000 people work inside this sprawling 329-acre campus. Each year, 3.3 billion pounds of produce from 49 states and 55 countries pass through Hunts Point Market. Twenty-four hours a day, a fleet of 13,000 trucks disperses this food across the New York region, serving upwards of 22 million people within a 50-mile radius. As much as half of New York’s produce, meat, and fish flows through Hunts Point before arriving at supermarkets, bodegas, food trucks, school cafeterias, restaurants, and soup kitchens across the five boroughs. “You hear people say New York is a melting pot, with world-class ethnic cuisine,” said Vincent Pacifico, the owner of Vista Food Exchange Inc., a large meat company at Hunts Point. “It all comes from the market.” For half a century, Hunts Point has stood as a marvel of the modern global supply chain, a grand hub that allows New Yorkers to enjoy everything from dim sum to keftedes to bacon, egg, and cheese sandwiches, morning, noon, and night. At its ground-breaking in 1962, New York City G E T T Y ( X6); S T EP H EN M A LLO N A ROUND MIDNIGHT ON A FRIGID Mayor Robert Wagner called the new market a “dream come true.” The New York Times heralded it as a “paradise of convenience.” But the market is also the thing that may ultimately grind the city to a halt. A S GLOBAL TEMPERATURES RISE and the Antarctic ice sheet melts, scientists predict sea levels could increase by as much as six to eight feet by the end of the century, submerging large swaths of lower Manhattan and the outer boroughs. Long before that, the warmer temperatures will continue to create stronger and more extreme weather events, like Hurricane Sandy, which pummeled New York in October 2012. Sandy was initially considered a 100-year storm. But for New York, the probability of another extreme flooding event increases every year. Under today’s conditions, a storm like Sandy will strike once every 25 years. By 2030, scientists expect an extreme storm to hit New York once every five years. With enough sea-level rise, the threat of the next hurricane raises the alarming possibility of a towering wall of water sweeping inland from the Atlantic Ocean, down the Long Island Sound, and toward the city. Hunts Point Market will bear the brunt of this mammoth storm surge. Situated on a peninsula that juts out into the East River, the market is exposed to the water on three sides. When the next superstorm comes, giant waves of corrosive salt water will pound the market, knocking out its electrical system and making it imposs ible to keep food refrigerated and safe for human consumption. The hundreds of refrigerated trucks that hold up to half of the food in the market will be destroyed. The giant crates of avocados, pallets of tomatoes, and boxes of meat and fish will all be swept away, left to bob along aimlessly until the water deposits them elsewhere in the city, together with the rest of the debris. A storm that cripples Hunts Point Market will sever New York’s food supply and dramatically alter life in the city. Approximately 17,000 restaurants and cafes and 10,000 bodegas and grocery stores rely on Hunts Point to keep their shelves and larders filled. In the aftermath of a superstorm, restaurants might create abridged post-disaster menus with whatever they have on hand or are able to procure from local retail stores. Soon even these limited supplies will dwindle, and restaurants will have to close temporarily. Unable to replenish their stocks, grocery stores, deli counters, and salad bars will quickly run out of food as well. Such disruptions will last for days or perhaps weeks, and certain businesses—particularly smaller, independent ones—might be forced to shutter their doors permanently. It’s not hard to imagine such a scenario. In 2012, after Hurricane Sandy flooded New York’s subways, damaged 60 miles of city streets, and knocked out power to lower Manhattan, thousands of food delivery trucks couldn’t reach their destinations, leaving many stores empty. It took some grocers up to two weeks to restock their shelves. Meanwhile, New Yorkers—particularly low-income residents who couldn’t easily relocate to less affected areas of the city—were forced to scrounge for food. Residents of the Lower East Side rummaged through Island Sound. If the storm had hit nine hours earlier, during high tide, oceanographers estimate that the storm surge would have risen as high as 18 feet above normal levels—more than enough to swamp the market, which sits at sea level, and devastate New York’s food supply completely. The potential severity of Hurricane Sandy has served as a revelatory moment for New York and other major cities around the United States that have suddenly found themselves confronted with a new existential threat. Over the past century, America’s metropolises, from New York to Boston to San Francisco, have developed massive, complex, and centralized food systems in order to power their extraordinary growth. These food hubs, like San Francisco’s wholesale produce market in the Bayview commercial district and Boston’s produce market, north of the city in neighboring Chelsea and Everett, are situated in low-lying industrial zones along the water—on cheap, abundant land from which food can be distributed quickly and easily. The “Hurricane Sandy was a big wake-up call,” said Kim Zeuli. “It was an unthinkable event, a near miss on our food supply.” Now cities are scrambling to prevent the next disaster. the dumpsters outside the Key Food Supermarket in search of items that had not yet completely spoiled. In Staten Island, a newly built restaurant was picked up by the floodwaters and washed out to sea. Despite the $65 billion worth of damages caused by Hurricane Sandy, it could have been much worse. By the time Sandy made landfall, the storm had been downgraded by the National Hurricane Center to a post-tropical cyclone. As Nicholas Coch, a geologist at Queens College told the environmental news web site Grist, “ Sandy was not the Big One.” He warned that New Yorkers weren’t prepared for what a full-scale hurricane would do to the city. Indeed, by a stroke of luck, Hunts Point Market avoided serious damage during Sandy. The storm had made landfall during low tide, which r esulted in a storm surge of only 13 feet in the Long centralization of these food vendors has created economic advantages of scale for the suppliers, particularly as city centers have deindustrialized their ports and become more reliant on trucks delivering goods in containers. For New York, there were additional reasons to push factories and warehouses to the city’s edge. Relocating industry to the least affluent borough, the Bronx, allowed for the rezoning of wealthier lower Manhattan neighborhoods for commercial and residential development. Like many large cities, New York aggressively remade its industrial footprint from the 1960s to the 1990s: For every two sections of the city rezoned for industry, three industrial zones were converted into othe…
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