Demonstrate Ethical and Professional Behavior

Competency 1: Demonstrate Ethical and Professional Behavior

Behaviors Make ethical decisions by applying the standards of the NASW Code of Ethics, relevant laws and regulations, models for ethical decision-making, ethical conduct of research, and additional codes of ethics as appropriate to context.

1, 7, 13, 14

Use reflection and self-regulation to manage personal values and maintain professionalism in practice situations

1, 4, 5

Demonstrate professional demeanor in behavior; appearance; and oral, written, and electronic communication

1, 6, 7

Use technology ethically and appropriately to facilitate practice outcomes 1, 6, 14

Use supervision and consultation to guide professional judgment and behavior 1, 4

Competency 2: Engage Diversity and Difference in Practice

Behaviors Apply and communicate understanding of the importance of diversity and difference in shaping life experiences in practice at the micro, mezzo, and macro levels

3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12

Present themselves as learners and engage clients and constituencies as experts of their own experiences

1, 5, 8, 14

Apply self-awareness and self-regulation to manage the influence of personal biases and values in working with diverse clients and constituencies

1, 4, 5, 7, 8

Competency 3: Advance Human Rights and Social, Economic, and Environmental Justice

Behaviors Apply their understanding of social, economic, and environmental justice to advocate for human rights at the individual and system levels

4, 5, 8, 9

Engage in practices that advance social, economic, and environmental justice 3, 4, 5, 9

Competency 4: Engage In Practice-informed Research and Research-informed Practice

Behaviors Use practice experience and theory to inform scientific inquiry and research 2, 3, 8, 14

Apply critical thinking to engage in analysis of quantitative and qualitative research methods and research findings

2, 4, 8, 10, 14

Use and translate research evidence to inform and improve practice, policy, and service delivery 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14

Competency 5: Engage in Policy Practice

Behaviors Identify social policy at the local, state, and federal level that impacts well-being, service delivery, and access to social services

1, 4, 5, 11, 12

CSWE EPAS 2015 Core Competencies and Behaviors in This Text

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Competency Chapter

Assess how social welfare and economic policies impact the delivery of and access to social services 1, 5, 10, 12

Apply critical thinking to analyze, formulate, and advocate for policies that advance human rights and social, economic, and environmental justice

1, 5, 8, 12

Competency 6: Engage with Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities

Behaviors

Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks to engage with clients and constituencies

2, 3, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12

Use empathy, reflection, and interpersonal skills to effectively engage diverse clients and constituencies 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11

Competency 7: Assess Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities

Behaviors

Collect and organize data, and apply critical thinking to interpret information from clients and constituencies

4, 7, 8, 12, 14

Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks in the analysis of assessment data from clients and constituencies

2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8

Develop mutually agreed-on intervention goals and objectives based on the critical assessment of strengths, needs, and challenges within clients and constituencies

6, 7, 8, 9, 14

Select appropriate intervention strategies based on the assessment, research knowledge, and values and preferences of clients and constituencies

3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11

Competency 8: Intervene with Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities

Behaviors Critically choose and implement interventions to achieve practice goals and enhance capacities of clients and constituencies

1, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13

Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks in interventions with clients and constituencies

2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13

Use inter-professional collaboration as appropriate to achieve beneficial practice outcomes 8, 9, 10, 11, 12

Negotiate, mediate, and advocate with and on behalf of diverse clients and constituencies 5, 8, 9, 10, 12

Facilitate effective transitions and endings that advance mutually agreed-on goals 13

Competency 9: Evaluate Practice with Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities

Behaviors Select and use appropriate methods for evaluation of outcomes 6, 8, 11, 14

Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks in the evaluation of outcomes

1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 14

Critically analyze, monitor, and evaluate intervention and program processes and outcomes 5, 6, 8, 14

Apply evaluation findings to improve practice effectiveness at the micro, mezzo, and macro levels 14

CSWE EPAS 2015 Core Competencies and Behaviors in This Text

Adapted with permission of Council on Social Work Education. These competencies and behaviors also appear in the margins throughout this text.

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Harlow, England • London • New York • Boston • San Francisco • Toronto • Sydney • Dubai • Singapore Hong Kong • Tokyo • Seoul • Taipei New Delhi • Cape Town • Sao Paulo • Mexico City • Madrid • Amsterdam Munich • Paris • Milan

An Introduction to Group Work Practice Ronald W. Toseland University at Albany, State University of New York

Robert F. Rivas Siena College, Emeritus

EIghTh EDITIoN

globAl EDITIoN

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Authorized adaptation from the United States edition, entitled An Introduction to Group Work Practice, 8th edition, ISBN 978-0-134- 05896-2, by Ronald W. Toseland and Robert F. Rivas, published by Pearson Education © 2017.

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To our parents, Stella and Ed, Marg and Al

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6

Contents

Preface 13

1. Introduction 17 Organization of the Text 18 The Focus of Group Work Practice 18 Values and Ethics in Group Work Practice 21

Practice Values 21 Practice Ethics 24

Definition of Group Work 27 Classifying Groups 28

Formed and Natural Groups 28 Purpose and Group Work 29 Treatment and Task Groups 29

Group Versus Individual Efforts 32 Advantages and Disadvantages of Treatment Groups 32 Advantages and Disadvantages of Task Groups 34

A Typology of Treatment and Task Groups 35 Treatment Groups 36

Support Groups 36 Educational Groups 38 Growth Groups 39 Therapy Groups 40 Socialization Groups 41 Self-Help Groups 42

Task Groups 44 Groups to Meet Client Needs 44 Groups to Meet Organizational Needs 50 Groups to Meet Community Needs 54

Summary 58

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Contents 7

2. Historical and Theoretical Developments 59 Knowledge f rom Group Work Practice and Practice Research: Treatment Groups 59

Differences Between Casework and Group Work 60 Intervention Targets 61 The Weakening of Group Work 62 Current Practice Trends 63 Divergent and Unified Practice Models 66 Evidence-based Group Work Practice 67 The Popularity of Psycho-educational, Structured, Practice Models 68

Knowledge f rom Group Work Practice: Task Groups 69 Knowledge f rom Social Science Research 70 Inf luential Theories 72

Systems Theory 72 Psychodynamic Theory 75 Learning Theory 76 Field Theory 77 Social Exchange Theory 79 Constructivist, Empowerment, and Narrative Theories 80

Summary 81

3. Understanding Group Dynamics 83 The Development of Helpful Group Dynamics 83 Group Dynamics 84

Communication and Interaction Patterns 84 Group Cohesion 95 Social Integration and Inf luence 99 Group Culture 105

Stages of Group Development 108 Summary 112

4. Leadership 114 Leadership, Power, and Empowerment 115

Leadership, Empowerment, and the Planned Change Process 118 Theories of Group Leadership 119 Factors Inf luencing Group Leadership 120 Effective Leadership 121

An Interactional Model of Leadership 122 Purposes of the Group 122 Type of Problem 123 The Environment 125 The Group as a Whole 126 The Group Members 127 The Group Leader 128

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8 Contents

Group Leadership Skills 129 Facilitating Group Processes 130 Data-Gathering and Assessment 134 Action Skills 136 Learning Group Leadership Skills 143 Leadership Style 144

Co-leadership 148 Summary 151

5. Leadership and Diversity 153 Approaches to Multicultural Group Work 154 A Framework for Leading Diverse Groups 155

Developing Cultural Sensitivity 156 Assessing Cultural Inf luences on Group Behavior 160 Intervening with Sensitivity to Diversity 166

Summary 175

6. Planning the Group 176 Planning Focus 176 Planning Model for Group Work 178

Establishing the Group’s Purpose 178 Assessing Potential Sponsorship and Membership 179 Recruiting Members 185 Composing the Group 188 Orienting Members 194 Contracting 196 Preparing the Environment 198 Reviewing the Literature 200 Selecting Monitoring and Evaluation Tools 201 Preparing a Written Group Proposal 202 Planning Distance Groups 202

Summary 211

7. The Group Begins 212 Objectives in the Beginning Stage 213

Ensuring a Secure Environment 214 Introducing New Members 215 Defining the Purpose of the Group 220 Confidentiality 223 Helping Members Feel a Part of the Group 225 Guiding the Development of the Group 226 Balancing Task and Socio-emotional Foci 231 Goal Setting in Group Work 231

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Contents 9

Contracting 234 Facilitating Members’ Motivation 235 Addressing Ambivalence and Resistance 235 Working with Involuntary Members 240 Anticipating Obstacles 242 Monitoring and Evaluating the Group: The Change Process Begins 243

Summary 245

8. Assessment 246 Conducting Efffective Assessments 247

Focus on Group Processes 248 External Constituencies and Sponsors 249

The Assessment Process 249 How Much Information? 250 Diagnostic Labels 251 Assessment Focus 252 Relationship of Assessment to the Change Process and Problem Solving 253

Assessing the Functioning of Group Members 254 Methods for Assessing Group Members 255

Assessing the Functioning of the Group as a Whole 262 Assessing Communication and Interaction Patterns 262 Assessing Cohesion 263 Assessing Social Integration 265 Assessing Group Culture 270

Assessing the Group’s Environment 271 Assessing the Sponsoring Organization 271 Assessing the Interorganizational Environment 273 Assessing the Community Environment 274

Linking Assessment to Intervention 276 Summary 279

9. Treatment Groups: Foundation Methods 280 Middle-Stage Skills 280

Preparing for Group Meetings 281 Structuring the Group’s Work 285 Involving and Empowering Group Members 291 Helping Members Achieve Goals 293 Using Empirically Based Treatment Methods in Therapy Groups 303 Working with Reluctant and Resistant Group Members During the Middle Phase 305 Monitoring and Evaluating the Group’s Progress 308

Summary 310

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10 Contents

10. Treatment Groups: Specialized Methods 311 Overreliance on Specialized Methods 311

Intervening with Group Members 312 Intrapersonal Interventions 313 Identifying and Discriminating 314 Recognizing Associations 315 Analyzing the Rationality of Thoughts and Belief s 316 Changing Thoughts, Belief s, and Feeling States 318 Interpersonal Interventions 326 Learning by Observing Models 327 Environmental Interventions 333 Connecting Members to Concrete Resources 333 Expanding Members’ Social Networks 334 Contingency Management Procedures 335 Modifying Physical Environments 338

Intervening in the Group as a Whole 339 Changing Communication and Interaction Patterns 339 Changing the Group’s Attraction for Its Members 341 Using Social Integration Dynamics Effectively 343 Changing Group Culture 345

Changing the Group Environment 346 Increasing Agency Support for Group Work Services 346 Links with Interagency Networks 348 Increasing Community Awareness 349

Summary 351

11. Task Groups: Foundation Methods 352 The Ubiquitous Task Group 352 Leading Task Groups 353

Leading Meetings 354 Sharing Information 356 Enhancing Involvement and Commitment 358 Developing Information 359 Dealing with Conf lict 361 Making Effective Decisions 364 Understanding Task Groups’ Political Ramifications 366 Monitoring and Evaluating 367 Problem Solving 368

A Model for Effective Problem Solving 369 Identifying a Problem 370 Developing Goals 373 Collecting Data 374 Developing Plans 375

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Contents 11

Selecting the Best Plan 375 Implementing the Plan 376

Summary 378

12. Task Groups: Specialized Methods 380 Small Organizational Groups 380

Brainstorming 380 Variations on Brainstorming 384 Focus Groups 385 Nominal Group Technique 388 Multi-attribute Utility Analysis 392 Quality Improvement Groups 395

Large Organizational Groups 397 Parliamentary Procedure 397 Phillips’ 66 401

Methods for Working with Community Groups 403 Mobilization Strategies 403 Capacity-Building Strategies 405 Social Action Strategies 407

Summary 410

13. Ending the Group’s Work 411 Factors that Inf luence Group Endings 411 The Process of Ending 412 Planned and Unplanned Termination 412

Member Termination 413 Worker Termination 415

Ending Group Meetings 416 Ending the Group as a Whole 418

Learning from Members 418 Maintaining and Generalizing Change Efforts 418 Reducing Group Attraction 424 Feelings About Ending 426 Planning for the Future 428 Making Referrals 429

Summary 432

14. Evaluation 433 Why Evaluate? The Group Worker’s View 435

Reasons for Conducting Evaluations 435 Organizational Encouragement and Support 435

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12 Contents

Time Considerations 436 Selecting a Data Collection Method 436

Evaluation Methods 437 Evaluations for Planning a Group 437

Obtaining Program Information 437 Needs Assessment 438

Evaluations for Monitoring a Group 439 Monitoring Methods 439

Evaluations for Developing a Group 445 Single-System Methods 446 Case Study Methods 449 Participatory Action Research Methods (PARS) 450

Evaluations for Determining Effectiveness and Efficiency 450 Evaluation Measures 454

Choosing Measures 454 Types of Measures 455

Summary 459

Appendix A: Standards for Social Work Practice with Groups 460 Appendix B: Group Announcements 471 Appendix C: Outline for a Group Proposal 473 Appendix D: An Example of a Treatment Group Proposal 474 Appendix E: An Example of a Task Group Proposal 476 References 478 Author Index 507 Subject Index 519

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13

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