A continuous irritation reaction to the body or body parts initiated by certain substances is called allergy. Allergy is a disorder of the immune system of an individual when the body fails to defend itself from certain specific substances called allergens. There is a number of allergens as pollen, dust, certain food or food products, meld, medication, etc., that trigger an allergic reaction to the concerned individual.
Nearly about 60% of people in the world are sensitive to these allergens and suffering from allergies. In general, our immune system act as a defense system and is responsible for protecting our body from foreign particles as germs, molds, etc. from harming our body. But in allergic people the defense system responds to false alarms and can be identified by symptoms like sneezing, dripping of the nose, rashes on the body, and swelling.
Sometimes these reactions are life-threatening as anaphylaxis and should be considered as emergencies. Clinically allergy can be diagnosed by skin and blood tests. The development of hypersensitive reactions in one body due to exposure to allergen differentiates a healthy person from the infected one. The level of HR response is not definable physically but a cab is defined by its nature and energy level.
Epidemiology: The allergic problem is not confined to certain rather it can infect any age group from new borne to old age person. The disease is a manifestation of immune system reaction to allergens as gluten, pollen etc. Depending upon entry of allergen produces different types of symptoms and infects different body parts. Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis, Allergic dermatitis, Drug allergy, food allergy, Allergic conjunctivitis, etc are certain allergies prevailing in the population. One’s understanding of the epidemiology of the problem can help to take prevention and treatment at right time.
1. Allergy Rhinitis: This is the common problem of children affecting 15-2015 children in the world. The disease is responsible for inflammation in the nasal and non-nasal parts of children’s respiratory systems. Inflammation causes fatigue less and hindrance in hindered cognition to an infected child. Inheritance of disease factors through genes, infection of the upper respiratory tract, consumption of antibiotics at the initial years of birth, exposure to dust, and a grassy environment are responsible for disease to infect children.
2. Chronic Urticaria: It is the type of allergy of the skin caused by denaturation of mast cells of cuticular layer or release of histamine and is a general type of disorder among the population over the world. Certain foodstuffs, Mosquito bites, drugs, psychological conditions of individual are the factors play a role to cause disease.
3. Eczema: This is again atopic dermatitis disease of childhood in its chronic form usually targeting children below 10 years of their age. The disease is very complex caused by several factors as including genetic and environmental. Gene plays a major role in developing the disease in kids.
4. Drug allergy: The type of allergy is caused by the misbalance of the immune system caused by the impact of certain types of drugs in the affected person. Penicillin is the most common antibiotic drug identified to initiate drug allergy followed by Non-steroidal drugs induce hypersensitive reactions.
5. Food allergy: This is the type of allergy nowadays commonly found within the folk, disease produces inflammatory reactions by consumption of certain foodstuffs which are not causing any reaction to a normal person. The disease is IgE mediated response and inheritable from infected parents to offspring. The disease produces symptoms like itchy eyes, a watery nose, dry throat, and rashes. The patient also faces difficulty in breathing and sometimes fatal anaphylaxis.
Causes and Pathogenesis: our body is blessed by an immune system that fights with foreign particles and protects our body from the harm caused by these alien particles. The first defense mechanism against these foreign particles is provided by the skin. The defense system can recognize good and bad cells and respond accordingly. But in few cases when the system fails to perform its task and produces certain reactions called as Allergy.
Pathogenesis refers to the sequence of events leading to cause the potential disease. One of the major life-threatening allergy types Asthma caused by the limitation of airflow caused by Bronchoconstriction, Airway edema, Airway hyperresponsiveness, and airway remodeling results in the inflammation of the airflow pathway of an infected individual. Inflammation play a key role in the development of asthma involves in the interaction of body cells (lymphocytes, mast mucus cells, Neutrophylls, dendrites, eosinophils, epithelial cells) and mediators (chemokines, cytokines, Nitric oxides, Cysteinyl-leukotrienes) with the airways leads to pathophysiological characters of the disease.
When the sensitive cells of the body come in contact with allergens specific, IgE in cells binds to this allergen leading to the activation of mast cells and basophils causing the release of certain chemicals called mediators within the bloodstream or tissue. This mediator after released in the blood produces symptoms like swelling, itching, etc.
Prevention and Management: If a person is suffering from an allergy there is the foremost need for understanding the cause of one own allergic problem and all the allergens related to his allergy. And avoiding contact with allergen associated with an allergy will prevent any situation to be chronic. Treatment of the disease through appropriate medicines can help the needy to sustain his life with the disease. For example for asthma treatment generally corticosteroids are recommended and to be taken via inhalation. Corticosteroids help to suppress inflammatory pathways and induction of bronchodilation.
1. Food allergy: One should take a preventive approach towards his disease by avoiding food items causing the allergy. If in any case food containing an allergen is consumed or contacted and the allergic reaction starts immediately take over-the-counter (OTC) drugs to relieve the symptoms.
2. Drug allergy: People having allergies to some specific drugs should consult their doctors for prescribing alternative drugs. To cure serious reactions doctor must prescribe Antihistamines, corticosteroids, or epinephrine.