1-Mr. C has a variety of health issues related to his obesity. He has an elevated fasting blood glucose which indicate that he could be diabetic, an A1C level should be drawn to follow up with that. He also has elevated triglycerides, normal levels for a male should be between 40-170, his is 312. His total cholesterol are elevated as well, which normal levels should be less than 200, and his is 250 (Comprehensive Guide to Normal Lab Values, 2019). Keeping that in mind, he probably has high cholesterol diagnosis as well. His blood pressure is also elevated, which means that he needs more than just sodium restriction in his diet to control. Without him being on any medication, he is asking for a stroke in my opinion. Further education needs to be provided for him especially in needing to change his diet. Not only does he need to control his sodium intake, he also needs to monitor, carbs and sweets.
Personally, I would not recommend bariatric surgery until I am convinced that he is ready for the change. I would recommend that he loses some weight first since it would be risky with him being obese, to even undergo anesthesia. Health perception- Mr. C has a poor general health as evidenced by his lab levels and vitals. It seems that with his sedentary lifestyle, he is lacking exercise which would be very beneficial for him at this point. He is realizing that he needs help with his obesity and is considering bariatric surgery, so that is a positive.
Nutritional-Metobolic Pattern- It seems that with his high BMI, high HDL and cholesterol levels, he has a poor eating habits. He did mention that he attempts to control his blood pressure with sodium restriction.
Elimination- This category was not discussed.
Activity-Exercise Pattern- He works at a catalog telephone center, which means that he probably does not get much exercise with this job. He lives a sedentary lifestyle.
Sleep-Rest Pattern- He mentioned that he has sleep apnea.
Cognitive-Perceptual Pattern- He did not mention any cognitive deficits or hearing difficulties. He works at a telephone center so he must have good communication skills.
Self perception- He did not mention much of his life outside of his job, so he may have low self-esteem associated with the obesity.
Sexuality reproductive pattern- This was not discussed.
Coping stress tolerance pattern- This was not discussed but he is seeking help with his obesity.
Values Beliefs pattern- This was not discussed. 5 problems- His sedentary lifestyle is a problem that needs to be addressed. Mentioning that including even walking on his lunch break could make a huge difference in losing weight. Him not being able to control his blood pressure with just restricting sodium from his diet alone. With this high of blood pressure and high cholesterol he is a major risk for a stroke, as I mentioned above. Getting him started on medication would be crucial for him. I would also address that sleep apnea a little further as well. Asking if he is using a CPAP machine at home and how deligiant he is at using it. Another problem, is his diet. I would have him be referred to a nutritionist or further educate him on learning to maintain his diet. I would recommend weight watchers, they have a great program that is easy to manage with just an app. They even have support groups as well so he can meet people through it. If he does not control his diet and continue gaining weight, he would be at risk for many other diseases that cause a shorter life and could be life threatening.
Comprehensive Guide to Normal Lab Values. (2019). Meditec. Retrieved from https://www.meditec.com/resourcestools/medical-reference-links/normal-lab-values/
2-I agree that these days people look for a quick pill to take care of their problems. There are so many fad diets and they are just not realistic in helping people to maintain a healthy lifestyle. A family friend once did an all shake diet and of course lost several pounds because of the lack of caloric intake. He maintained the weight loss for less than a year before quickly regaining it plus some. Changing lifestyle behaviors and educating yourself on the importance of a well-balanced diet is extremely important for making positive and long-term changes for yourself. I think the same would go for Mr. C. He needs to know how to continue to strive for a healthy lifestyle after the surgery in order to maintain his weight after.
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3-it can be tough to face things like obesity and hypertension, especially at such a young age. It is good that she has you and your family for support. It is also good that she is identifying that she has issues that need to be addressed and taking the steps to make better choices. Weight watchers can help to teach individuals about healthy nutrition and portion control. Walking her dog everyday is also a good step towards getting more steps in and living a healthier lifestyle. It can be hard I’m sure to sit behind a desk all day and then come home and find the energy to exercise. Keep on encouraging her!
4-Yes the follow through of diet is so important. When my sister had the surgery several years ago she had to lose about 50# prior to the actual surgery. Part of that process was to shrink the stomach and get used to smaller meals. One of the complications after the surgery can be”dumping syndrome”. This is when a rapid emptying of the stomach occurs and moves into the small intestine. Many people experience this and can have symptoms of bloat, diarrhea, dizziness, nausea and sweating (Rovito, 2019). Ways to prevent this is to have no refined sugar or unnecessary fat, eat 5-6 smaller meals and no liquids between meals (Rovito, 2019). I read that doctors actually don’t mind when thsi occurs in patients because it helps them to try and to eat better. I know for my sister she had to really learn how to eat..she intiially lost an incredible amount of weight and looked quite unhealthy but then it stabilized. She started to gain her weight back but the physician put her on some medication to reduce her appetite and that helped and she lost more weight. She goes to a physician every 6 months and this has helped to keep her on track. She eats very little because she gets so full but she doesn’t mind..her brain has learned to be okay with smaller amounts.
Rovito, P. (2019, February 4). Complications of gastric bypass surgery 22 potential problems. Retrieved from https://www.bariatricsurgerysource.com
5- Weight loss has to do with burning more calories than you take in. You could theoretically eat junk food that totals 1200 calories a day and loose weight. The problem comes in when you are hungry shortly after eating that junk food. The trick is to eat foods that help you feel full for a longer amount of time and use portion control. I would rather eat foods that keep me from feeling hungry. With bariatric surgery, your stomach is shrunk down so you should only ingest teaspoons of broth at a time. If you have psychological need to eat foods, you will stretch your stomach out again and regain all the weight you lost. Eating for most people in this country is not a survival thing….it is an emotional thing. You tie your emotions to food. People in Africa or India do not have the luxury of eating due to stress. Until you recognize food as fuel, you will not likely keep off the weight you lost.
I think it is important to teach our children a different way of looking at food. It should be gas for your body and we should be putting in unleaded. We should teach them to not overfill the tank; stop associating food with love or other emotions.
6- I would say most of the people in this class already understand the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 being an autoimmune disease that attacks individuals who are genetic carriers of HLA type genes. Type 2 has a genetic component however, it is an acquired disorder that becomes active due to obesity and lack of exercise causing insulin resistance.
There is a very long and detailed explanation regarding your question about obesity and type 1 diabetes. In the past, type 1 diabetes was only diagnosed in childhood and these children were diagnosed after a significant weight loss. Children in general were already thin, active and healthy eaters because this was the lifestyle. In recent times, the increase in technology and junk food has caused a rise in obesity in all populations but especially children. Type 1 diabetics do not escape this trend. One article even says that there is a higher incidence of obesity in type 1 diabetics than any other people group (Mottalib et al., 2017). This article goes further into detail about insulin and the growth hormone along with how they affect the basal metabolic rate. You can read the details for yourself, but to sum it up, type 1 diabetes does not make your body immune to fat accumulation anymore than anyone else. If you left type 1 diabetes untreated with insulin for a long period of time, you would have weight loss from cell starvation. Of course, you would go into significant keto acidosis and could die.
Treating the type 1 diabetes with insulin reverses the effects of weight loss. In fact, hyperinsulinemia causes obesity and increases the growth hormone. This is seen particularly in mothers with gestational diabetes. The mother has increased glucose levels that increases her need for insulin. Her body cannot meet the demand, but the fetus has no problem with insulin production. Glucose crosses the placenta, but insulin does not. The baby produces the correct amounts of insulin to cover the increased glucose that crossed the placenta. This hyperinsulinemia causes the baby to grow to an alarming size. This causes macrosomia.; a baby that is too large for the gestational age. As a side note, this increases the baby’s risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.
A trend that has been seen in recent years is to have double diabetes. Now that we are able to do extensive diagnostic testing, we can see that a patient could have the antibodies present with type 1 diabetes and the insulin resistance seen with type 2 diabetes. Incidentally, obesity in a person with the antibodies that are seen with the type 1 diabetes causes that person to become an actual diabetic sooner. I would think in layman’s terms it is from placing undue stress on the pancreas to produce higher levels of insulin and the islet cells run out of juice.
I could go on, but I am guessing this answers your question.
Mottalib, A., Kasetty, M., Mar, J. Y., Elseaidy, T., Ashrafadeh, S., & Hamdy, O. (2017, August 23). Weight management in patients with type 1 diabetes and obesity. Current Diabetes Reports, 17(10). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11892-017-0918-8